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Em breve no Kernel Linux 3.4 - Parte 1 - Infraestrutura

4 de Maio de 2012, 0:00 , por Software Livre Brasil - | Ninguém está seguindo este artigo ainda.
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Tux GeniusAutor: Thorsten Leemhuis (Copyright (c) 2012 Heise Media UK Ltd.)
Traduzido: Marcelo Soares Souza (Dúvidas e melhorias na tradução envie por E-mail)
Originalmente: http://h-online.com/-1561840
 

No final de semana passado, Linus Torvalds publicou[1] o quinto candidato de lançamento do Linux 3.4; de um a três novos lançamentos devem se seguir antes do lançamento final desta versão do kernel, que é esperado até a segunda metade de Maio.
 
Como é comum, os desenvolvedores do kernel integraram todas as novas funcionalidades desta versão no inicio do ciclo de desenvolvimento. O Kernel Log pode, portanto, fornecer uma visão abrangente das novas funcionalidades do Linux 3.4 - os desenvolvedores do kernel muito raramento adicionam, ou revertem, grandes alterações durante a fase de estabilização.
 
Como de costume, o Kernel Log apresenta esta visão global em uma série de artigos que ira cobrir as várias áreas do kernel. O primeiro artigo descreve as mais importantes novas funcionalidades para o código da arquitetura do kernel e de infraestrutura básica; artigos subsequentes irão discutir os drivers gráficos, sistemas de arquivos, suporte a armazenamento e outros drivers de hardware.
 
Operação Hibrida
A partir do Linux 3.4, os kernels que são compilados para processadores x86-64/x64 poderão oferecer uma ABI (Application Binary Interface) "x32" para programas(1[2] e outros). Programas compilados para esta ABI podem acessar registros 64-bit e caminhos de dados de processadores 64-bit, porém estes apenas utilizam ponteiros de 32-bit - que são suficientes para muitas tarefas e utilizam menos memória que ponteiros 64-bit.
 
De um modo geral, isto permite que programas que são compilados para uma ABI x32 evitem o overhead que vem com uma operação completa em 64-bit enquanto garante que estes se beneficiem de algumas das maiores vantagens dos processadores 64-bit.  
 
O desenvolvimento deste conceito foi conduzido principalmente por desenvolvedores da Intel. A nova ABI parece ser principalmente voltada para dispositivos embarcadas e aos mercados de dispositivos móveis: a média prazo, smartphones, tablets e dispositivos similares com processadores x86 possuirão 4GB de memória ou mais, os quais um kernel 32-bit pode endereçar apenas usando alguns truques; porém, a maioria dos programas que serão usados nestes dispositivos não necessitarão mais do que 4GB de memória; ou seja estes teriam que ganhar muito usando ponteiros de 64-bit para compensar o aumento de consumo de memória em uma operação 64-bit completa.
 
Ainda mais, os processadores utilizados nestes ambientes tendem a serem mais lentos, o que significa que as vantagens ganhas usando ponteiros de 32-bit ao invés de ponteiros de 64-bit são mais notáveis. Em processadores x86 para notebooks, desktops ou servidores, o overhead causada por operações 64-bit completas é muitas vezes pequena; portanto, as distribuições x86-64 usadas nestes sistemas irão provavelmente continuar a compilar a maioria dos seus software como programas 64-bits, nativamente para a ABI x86-64.
 
Mais informações sobre este tema podem ser encontradas em x32 project's[3] e em um artigo sobre a nova ABI em LWN.net[4].
 
Virtualização
Mudanças no código do Xen (1[5], 2[6], e outros) incluem uma modificação[7] que possibilita que um Linux 3.4 operando como um Kernel Dom0 envie algumas informações de velocidade do processador e dos sleep states para o hypervisor Xen, uma vez que o kernel tenha interpretado as tabelas ACPI do BIOS; o hypervisor pode utilizar estas informações para ajustar a velocidade do processador (P-states) ou para colocar a CPU em um sleep state (C-states). Isto reduz o consumo de energia, o que pode prolongar significativamente a bateria de alguns notebooks.
 
Por conta da interpretação do Kernel, o hypervisor Xen continua funcional sem um interpretador ACPI completo. O kernel Dom0, per si, não pode lidar com o ajuste de velocidade ou dos sleep states porque o hypervisor tem controle total sobre o sistema e é, portanto, o único componente que tem uma visão completa da carga do sistema; coordenar continuamente o kernel Dom0 e o hypervisor, em tempo de execução, consumiria muito recurso do sistema. O Xen ainda necessita de muitos ajustes - no KVM, isto não é necessário porque o kernel é o hypervisor.
 
No 3.4[8], dispositivos PCI 2.3 que compartilham uma interrupção com outro dispositivo PCI no hospedeiro (host) podem ser passadas (designadas) para convidados (guests) do KVM. O subsistema SCSI agora inclui um driver virtio-scsi[9] o qual provê uma emulação de dispositivos de controle do tráfico de dados entre host e guest sem muita sobrecarga. De acordo com seus desenvolvedores[10], o driver é mais flexível, oferece melhor escalabilidade e é mais fácil de usar que o virtio-blk - um driver que, de acordo com os desenvolvedores, oferece funções similares mas carece de algumas funcionalidades para certos casos.
 
Trabalho de renovação
Os trabalhos de arrumação e reestruturação no código ARM, que Linus Torvalds fomentou no ano passado, continuam no 3.4 (1[11], 2[12], 3[13], e outros). O novo framework Common CLK (1[14], 2[15], documentação[16]) permite que o kernel controle o "clock nodes" disponível em diversos dispositivos; este foi projetado para simplificar o código que lida com tais dispositivos e, em particular, reduzem duplicatas em códigos da arquitetura ARM. Os mesmos objetivos são compartilhados por rpmsg e remoteproc[17] (1[18], 2[19], 3[20], 4[21], 5[22], e outros), os quais os códigos específicos da plataforma podem ser utilizado para a comunicação com processadores secundários (DSPs, GPUs ou CPUs de serviço) que existem em muitos SOCs (Systems-on-Chip).
 
O Linux 3.4 é a primeira versão a oferecer suporte ao SoC Samsung Exynos5250; o kernel agora também suporta SMP[23] no NVIDIA's Tegra 3. Além disso, o Kernel ARM agora oferece[24] um compilador Just-in-Time para a filtragem de pacotes de rede.
 
Diversos
Diversas mudanças no código x86 foram feitas para permitir que o kernel, juntamente com o udev, automaticamente carregue os drivers apropriados para cada processador se estes forem compilados como módulos; por exemplo, isto é possível com drivers que manipulam as funcionalidades de CRC ou de mudança de níveis de velocidade (1[25], 2[26], 3[27], 4[28], 5[29], 6[30], e outros).
 
Os desenvolvedores do kernel integraram um grande número de melhorias na infraestrutura de tracing (rastreamento) (1[31], 2[32], e outros), incluindo um programa simples em GTK2+ [33] que analisa os dados coletados pelo "perf report". A infraestrutura ftrace agora pode ser usada através da ferramenta perf (1[34], 2[35], e outros).
 
Uma nova opção de configuração [36] permite as distribuições determinar como o kernel deve tratar o ASPM (Active State Power Management) por padrão. As técnicas de  gerenciamento de energia do PCIe atrairam atenção porque, por um tempo, o kernel não ativava estas se houvessem informações inconsistente da BIOS; porém, este problema foi resolvido em fevereiro[37].
 
O novo módulo de segurança[38] Yama pode agora prevenir que processos utilizem as funções do Ptrace (Process Trace) para examinar a memória de outros processos; O SELinux adicionou funcionalidade similar recentemente[39].
 
Mudanças [40] ao código para processadores Power/PowerPC (PPC) incluem a adição de [41] funcionalidades de crash dump chamada de Firmware Assisted Dump (fadump) e a remoção de código de suporte ao iSeries.

Links
[1] http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.kernel/1289428
[2] http://git.kernel.org/linus/5fd92e65a68b813667bc8739f5fa463e5bfcd66d
[3] http://sites.google.com/site/x32abi/
[4] https://lwn.net/Articles/456731/
[5] http://git.kernel.org/linus/d4c6fa73fe984e504d52f3d6bba291fd76fe49f7
[6] http://git.kernel.org/linus/e22057c8599373e5caef0bc42bdb95d2a361ab0d
[7] http://git.kernel.org/linus/59a56802918100c1e39e68c30a2e5ae9f7d837f0
[8] http://git.kernel.org/linus/07700a94b00a4fcbbfb07d1b72dc112a0e036735
[9] http://git.kernel.org/linus/4fe74b1cb051dc9d47a80e263c388cf1651783d4
[10] http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.scsi/72697/focus%3D86578
[11] http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.kernel/1272258
[12] http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.kernel/1272258/focus%3D1272262
[13] http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.kernel/1269753
[14] http://git.kernel.org/linus/9d9f78ed9af0e465d2fd15550471956e7f559b9f
[15] http://git.kernel.org/linus/b2476490ef11134b65544d8f062cff96c53e941b
[16] http://git.kernel.org/linus/69fe8a8e92ae6877167f222838bd0c92b35c7d72
[17] http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.kernel/1272258/focus%3D1272264
[18] http://git.kernel.org/linus/bcabbccabffe7326f046f25737ba1084f463c65c
[19] http://git.kernel.org/linus/400e64df6b237eb36b127efd72000a2794f9eec1
[20] http://git.kernel.org/linus/ac8954a413930dae3c53f7e782f09a94e7eae88b
[21] http://git.kernel.org/linus/7a186941626d19f668b08108db158379b32e6e02
[22] http://git.kernel.org/linus/fd2c15ec1dd3c2fdfc6ff03bb9644da9d530e3b9
[23] http://git.kernel.org/linus/86e51a2ee471062184d2f74b46c45d344a2b9b38
[24] http://git.kernel.org/linus/ddecdfcea0ae891f782ae853771c867ab51024c2
[25] http://git.kernel.org/linus/644e9cbbe3fc032cc92d0936057e166a994dc246
[26] http://git.kernel.org/linus/fa8031aefec0cf7ea6c2387c93610d99d9659aa2
[27] http://git.kernel.org/linus/3bd391f056df61e928de1680ff4a3e7e07e5b399
[28] http://git.kernel.org/linus/9061e0e16700ef228837e96987ff51794c956197
[29] http://git.kernel.org/linus/fad12ac8c8c2591c7f4e61d19b6a9d76cd49fafa
[30] http://git.kernel.org/linus/78ff123b05fb15beb1ad670372eea0d299d0b8af
[31] http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.kernel/1269694/focus%3D1270097
[32] http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.kernel/1275809
[33] http://git.kernel.org/linus/c31a94570552dcaa517c4f7a043ffd28835016be
[34] http://git.kernel.org/linus/ced39002f5ea736b716ae233fb68b26d59783912
[35] http://git.kernel.org/linus/5500fa51199aee770ce53718853732600543619e
[36] http://git.kernel.org/linus/ad71c96213a68dfe6d761e3ff7ac7ac267fd612a
[37] http://www.h-online.com/news/item/New-Linux-kernel-fixes-power-saving-issues-1429482.html
[38] http://git.kernel.org/linus/2d514487faf188938a4ee4fb3464eeecfbdcf8eb
[39] https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Features/SELinuxDenyPtrace
[40] http://git.kernel.org/linus/5375871d432ae9fc581014ac117b96aaee3cd0c7
[41] http://git.kernel.org/linus/eb39c8803d0e3d98fe74825f99287f63d55e6460
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[143] http://git.kernel.org/linus/ccc7910fe564d99415def7c041fa261e62a43011
[144] http://git.kernel.org/linus/27e0393f15fc8bc855c6a888387ff5ffd2181089
[145] http://git.kernel.org/linus/2b036c6b861dc5da295c6fe19a3edcff7093fdeb
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[347] http://git.kernel.org/linus/9e15db7ce949e9f2d8bb6ce32a74212a4f662370
[348] http://git.kernel.org/linus/9657a87205a367bddd802cbf439531697597fd8b
[349] http://git.kernel.org/linus/b6c58e8af0d1188ce826bb35444f11752000e5e1
[350] http://git.kernel.org/linus/c89f4f9a611a5421bfa990bdefc67e06c5290fce
[351] http://git.kernel.org/linus/2f2f371f8907d169650f594850ca6096e2f73b77
[352] http://git.kernel.org/linus/419387612c03fce2ca6d5a3d6aac3dae42069264
[353] http://git.kernel.org/linus/b4f0b880c8d7eb225b79dec663780b4dcdea7fbc
[354] http://git.kernel.org/linus/48b25c43e6eebb6c0edf72935e8720385beca76b
[355] http://git.kernel.org/linus/6391a70682b173abb8f2895c03c6b21d764e04e5
[356] http://git.kernel.org/linus/4857d4bbe9821c8d732cb84455e18e12b3d79add
[357] http://git.kernel.org/linus/3ab121ab18669226742891416fe7ecc86dadb047
[358] http://git.kernel.org/linus/212188a596d17d519842ef2173150315735b54e1
[359] http://git.kernel.org/linus/35424f636e9b6e79a362162aaac96b12cc8e8f69
[360] http://git.kernel.org/linus/4c1051e37a0e2a941115c6fb7ba08c318f25a0f9
[361] http://git.kernel.org/linus/8b646bd759086f6090fe27acf414c0b5faa737f4
[362] http://git.kernel.org/linus/b7e68d6876dfbab087bc3859211a9efc74cbe30c
[363] http://git.kernel.org/linus/82b0a4c3c171b180629696e8d1d5f52516f711e6
[364] http://www.h-online.com/search/?sort=d;rm=search;mediatype=3;q=kernel-log
[365] http://www.h-online.com/open/
[366] http://www.h-online.com/open/features/The-H-s-Linux-Kernel-History-1221120.html
[367] http://identi.ca/kernellog2
[368] http://twitter.com/#!/kernellog2
[369] http://identi.ca/kernellogauthor
[370] http://twitter.com/#!/kernellogauthor


Tags deste artigo: kernel do linux 3.4 kernel linux software livre