Ir para o conteúdo
ou

Software livre Brasil

 Voltar a Blog do Marc...
Tela cheia

Em breve no Kernel Linux 3.3 - Parte 1 - Redes

27 de Janeiro de 2012, 0:00 , por Software Livre Brasil - 0sem comentários ainda | Ninguém está seguindo este artigo ainda.
Visualizado 416 vezes

Tux GeniusAutor: Thorsten Leemhuis / Copyright (c) 2012 Heise Media UK Ltd.
Traduzido: Marcelo Soares Souza (Dúvidas e melhorias na tradução envie por E-mail)
Originalmente: http://h-online.com/-1421959

A versão 3.3 do Kernel Linux oferece uma nova maneira de unir múltiplos dispositivos Ethernet. Foi adicionado o suporte para "Open vSwitch", um switch de rede virtual desenvolvido especificamente para ambientes virtualizados. O Byte Queue Limits foi projetado para reduzir a latência causadora do "buffer bloat".
 
Com o lançamento do Kernel Linux 3.3-rc1[1], na semana passada, Linus Torvalds fechou a janela de merge da versão 3.3. A partir de agora esta versão esta publicada, os desenvolvedores irão basicamente integrar correções e pequenas melhorias - então o primeiro candidato de lançamento do Kernel Linux 3.3 deve incluir todas as novas funcionalidades desta versão do Kernel, o qual é esperado ser lançado em Março. Modificações adicionados pelos desenvolvedores do Kernel na primeira fase do ciclo de desenvolvimento são raramente removidas ou desabilitadas nesta fase de estabilização.
 
Portanto o Kernel Log já esta em posição de provê uma visão abrangente das mais importantes novas funcionalidades do Kernel Linux 3.3. Como sempre, esta visão será apresentada dentro da série de artigos "Em breve no Kernel Linux 3.3" que irá gradualmente cobrir as várias áreas do kernel. A parte 1 da série descreve as mais importantes mudanças sobre a pilha de rede e dos drivers de rede e Wi-Fi. Nas próximas semanas, outros artigos cobrirão o suporte a armazenamento, sistemas de arquivos, código de arquitetura, infraestrutura e outros drivers de dispositivos.
 
Trabalho em equipe
 
Os desenvolvedores do Kernel adicionaram drivers que possibilitam a união de dispositivos Ethernet[2], este combina múltiplos dispositivos Ethernet em um único dispositivo virtual (agregação de link/802.1AX[3]). Este dispositivo virtual de rede utiliza a técnica de round-robin para compartilhar a carga de rede através de múltiplas portas; alternativamente, uma porta pode ser designada "active backup" para assumir a conexão com a rede caso ocorra um problema com a conexão primária. Os desenvolvedores dizem que este driver é muito rápido, simples e uma alternativa escalável ao driver de bonding que disponibiliza funcionalidade similar. Porém, o driver não faz todo o trabalho sozinho, este trabalha juntamente com a biblioteca libteam[4].
 
O Kernel Linux 3.3 inclui os componentes necessários para o Open vSwitch[5]. Este switch virtual de multi-camada pode operar nas camadas 2, 3 ou 4 e foi especificamente[6] desenvolvida para ambientes virtualizados; este é usado, por exemplo, no XenServer 6.0 para controlar o trafico de rede entre o host, seus convidados (guests) e o mundo externo. Informações sobre esta tecnologia podem ser encontradas no site do Open vSwitch[7], na documentação[8], na documentação do kernel[9] e na apresentação em vídeo [10] do Simon Horman na linux.conf.au 2012[11].
 
Prioridades
 
No Kernel Linux 3.3, a infraestrutura do cgroup para prioridade de rede[12] possibilita aos administradores configurarem dinamicamente as prioridades dos recursos de redes para grupos de processos (control group (cgroup) processes); detalhes estão disponíveis na documentação[13].

Outra nova funcionalidade, o "TCP buffer size controller[14]", permite que o controlador de memória limite a quantidade de RAM disponível para os buffers utilizados na comunicação TCP (por exemplo 1[15], 2[16], 3[17], 4[18], 5[19]); um artigo na LWN.net[20] discute uma versão anterior deste patch; estes buffers podem se tornar grandes e causar problemas em sistemas com pouca RAM.
 
O "Dynamic Queue Limits[21]" introduzido pelos desenvolvedores do Google, e o "Byte Queue Limits[22]" que é baseado neste, permite ao kernel controlar o quanto de dados pode ser acumulado em uma fila de envio. Este foi projetado para reduzir latências na rede que ocasionalmente ocorrem devido ao buffer excessivo, criado em dispositivos de redes recentes, sem impactar na taxa de transferência de dados; o objetivo é reduzir o problema de "buffer bloat" mencionado em artigo no Kernel Log[23] e que é causado pelo excessivo buffer de dados em alguns dispositivos de rede. Os desenvolvedores modificaram os mais importantes drivers de rede - incluindo bnx2, bnx2x, forcedeth, e1000e, igb, niu, tg3, sfc e sky2 - para que estes possam suportar o "Byte Queue Limits". O artigo "Network transmit queue limits[24]" publicado em LWN.net em agosto de 2011 oferece informação sobre esta tecnologia.
 
Dispositivos Wi-Fi
 
Desenvolvido pela Broadcom, o driver Wi-Fi brcmsmac utiliza o driver[25] bcma, que é parte do kernel já a algum tempo, para endereçar os componentes Wi-Fi dos chips que utilizam a tecnologia de interconexão AMBA da Broadcom; juntos com outra modificação[26], estes previnem potencias conflitos causado por dois drivers tentando endereçar o mesmo dispositivo.
 
O driver ath9k para dispositivos Atheros foi modificado[27] para suportar a tecnologia "Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS)". Esta tecnologia previne que redes Wi-Fi utilizem certas frequências na faixa do 5 GHz caso esta interfira com radares utilizados em aeroportos, instalações militares e estações meteorológicas. O suporte completo a DFS para o subsistema Wi-Fi ainda esta em desenvolvimento[28]; informações sobre DFS estão disponível na wiki Linux Wireless[29] e no LWN.net[30].
 
Drivers de Rede
 
Tendo passado anos na área de avaliação (staging area), o driver de rede hv_netvsc para a tecnologia de virtualização Microsoft Hyper-V esta madura o suficiente para ser movida para[31] o subsistema de redes; este deve aparecer em breve em kernels de distribuição que raramente, ou nunca, incluem drivers da área de avaliação.
 
O driver tg3  agora suporta[32] o chip Broadcom 57766, enquanto o driver ixgbe endereça duas novas variantes do Intel 82599 (1[33], 2[34]). O driver virtio-net que permite sistemas host e guest trocarem dados em redes para virtualizadas agora suportam [35] ACPI S4 (standby/hibernate).
 
Proteção de sobrecarga
 
O código de rede para o "Active Queue Management[36] (AQM)" agora utiliza[37] um mecanismo "Adaptive RED (Random Early Detection[38])" que dinamicamente adapta o random-drop/tail-drop para tráfico de grandes volumes de dados. Como explicado no artigo sobre Adaptive RED[39]PDF apresentado em 2001, esta solução objetiva aprimorar a robustez desta tecnologia usado por roteadores  para se proteger contra sobrecargas.
 
O mantenedor do subsistema de redes David Miller explica[40] muitas destas mudanças, assim como as requisições de Pull para o Kernel Linux 3.3. Por exemplo, ele menciona o novo suporte para UDP e AF_UNIX sockets do Netlink Socket Dumping[41] (1[42], 2[43], 3[44], 4[45], 5[46]).
 
Outras melhorias
 
Muitas pequenas melhorias nesta versão do Kernel, mas de forma alguma insignificantes, as mudanças podem ser encontrados na lista abaixo. Esta lista contém os cabeçalhos dos commits referindo as respectivas mudanças.

 
LAN

  • be2net: Add support for Skyhawk cards[48]
  • be2net: netpoll support[49]
  • bna: Add debugfs interface.[50]
  • bnx2: Support for byte queue limits[51]
  • bnx2x: allow FCoE and DCB for 578xx[52]
  • bnx2x: handle iSCSI SD mode[53]
  • bnx2x: Support for byte queue limits[54]
  • bnx2x: update driver version to 1.70.35-0[55]
  • e1000e: Support for byte queue limits[56]
  • enic: This patch adds pci id 0x71 for SRIOV VF's[57]
  • forcedeth: Support for byte queue limits[58]
  • hyper-v: Update MAINTAINERS[59]
  • IB/qib: Default some module parameters optimally[60]
  • igb: add basic runtime PM support[61]
  • igb: Add support for byte queue limits.[62]
  • KSZ8851-SNL: Add ethtool support for EEPROM via eeprom_93cx6[63]
  • KSZ8851-SNL: Add support for EEPROM MAC address[64]
  • macb: initial support for Cadence GEM[65]
  • mlx4_core: Add "native" argument to mlx4_cmd and its callers (where needed)[66]
  • mlx4_core: Modify driver initialization flow to accommodate SRIOV for Ethernet[67]
  • mlx4: Ethernet port management modifications[68]
  • mlx4: Traffic steering management support for SRIOV[69]
  • net: add calxeda xgmac ethernet driver[70]
  • net/fec: make FEC driver buildable as module[71]
  • net-forcedeth: Add internal loopback support for forcedeth NICs.[72]
  • net/hyperv: Add support for jumbo frame up to 64KB[73]
  • net/hyperv: Add support for promiscuous mode setting[74]
  • net/macb: add DT support for Cadence macb/gem driver[75]
  • net/mlx4_core: Implement the master-slave communication channel[76]
  • net/mlx4_en: adding loopback support[77]
  • net/smsc911x: Add regulator support[78]
  • niu: Add support for byte queue limits.[79]
  • phy: Micrel KS8995MA 5-ports 10/100 managed Ethernet switch support added[80]
  • sfc: Support for byte queue limits[81]
  • skge: add byte queue limit support[82]
  • sky2: add bql support[83]
  • stmmac: add the experimental PCI support[84]
  • stmmac: update the driver's documentation (Dec-2011)[85]
  • tg3: Add MDI-X reporting[86]
  • tg3: Enable EEE support for capable 10/100 devs[87]
  • tg3: Support for byte queue limits[88]
  • tg3: Update version to 3.122[89]
  • via-rhine: per device debug level.[90]

WLAN

  • ath5k: Add a module parameter to disable hw rf kill switch[91]
  • ath5k: Calibration re-work[92]
  • ath5k: Switch from read-and-clear to write-to-clear method when handling PISR/SISR registers[93]
  • ath6kl: Add a modparam to enable multi normal interface support[94]
  • ath6kl: Add new state for WOW mode[95]
  • ath6kl: add support for WPS[96]
  • ath6kl: add suspend_cutpower module parameter[97]
  • ath6kl: Add WOW suspend/resume implementation[98]
  • ath6kl: AR6004 SDIO support[99]
  • ath6kl: Enable multiple vif support[100]
  • ath6kl: Implement support for power parameter control from userspace[101]
  • ath6kl: indicate probe-resp offload support[102]
  • ath6kl: Remove modparam multi_norm_if_support[103]
  • ath6kl: support for P2P mgmt operations on station interface[104]
  • ath6kl: update ar6004 definitions[105]
  • ath9k: Add btcoex profile management support for AR9462[106]
  • ath9k: Advertise support for TDLS[107]
  • ath9k: enable ANI for ar9100 chips[108]
  • ath9k_hw: add DFS testing check[109]
  • ath9k_hw: Add support for MCI WLAN calibration[110]
  • ath9k_hw: make bluetooth coexistence support optional at compile time[111]
  • ath9k: Support RSN Mesh[112]
  • ath: optimize processing of CTLs for country IEs for world roaming cards[113]
  • b43: N-PHY: finish 2.4GHz 0x2056 radio setup[114]
  • batman-adv: readme update (mention ap isolation and new log level)[115]
  • batman-adv: update internal version number[116]
  • brcm80211: fmac: add bcm4330 support[117]
  • brcm80211: fmac: add Kconfig option for SDIO bus support[118]
  • cfg80211: relicense reg.c reg.h and genregdb.awk to ISC[119]
  • hostap_cs: add ID for Canon K30225[120]
  • iwlagn: finer-grained HT disable[121]
  • iwlegacy: rename base 4965 and 3945 file names[122]
  • iwlwifi: Add official names for new devices[123]
  • iwlwifi: P2P is not enabled by default[124]
  • iwlwifi: two more SKUs for 6x05 series[125]
  • mac80211: Add HT operation modes for IBSS[126]
  • mac80211: Add NoAck per tid support[127]
  • mac80211: add support for control port protocol in AP mode[128]
  • mac80211: implement wifi TX status[129]
  • mac80211: Support ht-cap over-rides.[130]
  • MAINTAINERS: add b43 mailing list[131]
  • mwifiex: add support for Marvell sd8797 device[132]
  • mwl8k: Changing the driver version to 0.13[133]
  • nl80211: add API to probe a client[134]
  • nl80211: add testmode to the list of supported commands[135]
  • rt2800: Add support for the Fujitsu Stylistic Q550[136]
  • rt2800pci: fix spurious interrupts generation[137]
  • rt2x00: Change RF3853 to RF3053.[138]
  • rt2x00: Identify rt2800usb chipsets.[139]
  • rt2x00: RT3593 is also applicable to USB.[140]
  • rtl8192cu: Add new device IDs[141]
  • wireless: Add NoAck per tid support[142]
  • wireless: disable wext sysfs by default[143]
  • wireless: Support ht-capabilities over-rides.[144]
  • wl12xx: remove sdio_test module[145]

Various

  • 6LoWPAN: add fragmentation support[146]
  • 6LoWPAN: UDP header compression[147]
  • 6LoWPAN: update documentation[148]
  • Bluetooth: Add HCI User Passkey Req Evt handling[149]
  • Bluetooth: Add MITM mechanism to LE-SMP[150]
  • Bluetooth: Add SMP to User Passkey and Confirm[151]
  • Bluetooth: Add User Passkey Response handling[152]
  • Bluetooth: Allow to set AMP type for virtual HCI[153]
  • Bluetooth: Always compile SCO and L2CAP in Bluetooth Core[154]
  • Bluetooth: EFS: add enable_hs kernel param[155]
  • Bluetooth: EWS: extended window size option support[156]
  • Bluetooth: making enable_hs independent from L2CAP[157]
  • Bluetooth: Periodic Inquiry and Discovery[158]
  • Bluetooth: prioritizing data over HCI[159]
  • bonding: document undocumented active_slave sysfs entry.[160]
  • bridge: add local MAC address to forwarding table (v2)[161]
  • bridge: add NTF_USE support[162]
  • caif: Add support for CAIF over CDC NCM USB interface[163]
  • can: cc770: add driver core for the Bosch CC770 and Intel AN82527[164]
  • can: cc770: add driver core for the Bosch CC770 and Intel AN82527[165]
  • can: cc770: add legacy ISA bus driver for the CC770 and AN82527[166]
  • can: cc770: add platform bus driver for the CC770 and AN82527[167]
  • can: cc770: legacy CC770 ISA bus driver[168]
  • can: Revert outdated cc770 driver patches.[169]
  • can: sja1000_isa: convert to platform driver to support x86_64 systems[170]
  • dsa: Allow core and drivers to be built as modules[171]
  • dsa: Move switch drivers to new directory drivers/net/dsa[172]
  • ethtool: allow ETHTOOL_GSSET_INFO for users[173]
  • genetlink: add auto module loading[174]
  • ipv4: reduce percpu needs for icmpmsg mibs[175]
  • ipv6/addrconf: speedup /proc/net/if_inet6 filling[176]
  • IPVS: Modify the SH scheduler to use weights[177]
  • neigh: new unresolved queue limits[178]
  • net: Add ethtool to mii advertisment conversion helpers[179]
  • net: add wireless TX status socket option[180]
  • netem: add cell concept to simulate special MAC behavior[181]
  • netem: rate extension[182]
  • netfilter: add extended accounting infrastructure over nfnetlink[183]
  • netfilter: add ipv4 reverse path filter match[184]
  • netfilter: add ipv6 reverse path filter match[185]
  • netfilter: nf_nat: export NAT definitions to userspace[186]
  • netfilter: provide config option to disable ancient procfs parts[187]
  • netfilter: xtables: add an IPv6 capable version of the ECN match[188]
  • netfilter: xtables: add nfacct match to support extended accounting[189]
  • netfilter: xtables: move ipt_ecn to xt_ecn[190]
  • net: introduce build_skb()[191]
  • net: optimize socket timestamping[192]
  • net: remove legacy ethtool ops[193]
  • net_sched: qdisc_alloc_handle() can be too slow[194]
  • net_sched: sfq: add optional RED on top of SFQ[195]
  • NFC: Add a DEP link control netlink command[196]
  • NFC: Initial LLCP support[197]
  • NFC: Update names and structs to NCI spec 1.0 d18[198]
  • NFC: Update names and structs to NCI spec 1.0 d22[199]
  • tcp: inherit listener congestion control for passive cnx[200]
  • tipc: Enable use by containers having their own network namespace[201]
  • vlan: add 802.1q netpoll support[202]
  • Bluetooth: Add support for BCM20702A0 [0a5c:21e3][203]

Links deste artigo
[1] http://www.h-online.com/open/features/Kernel-Log-Linux-3-3-goes-into-testing-1418516.html
[2] http://git.kernel.org/linus/3d249d4ca7d0ed6629a135ea1ea21c72286c0d80
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Link_aggregation
[4] https://github.com/jpirko/libteam/
[5] http://git.kernel.org/linus/ccb1352e76cff0524e7ccb2074826a092dd13016
[6] http://openvswitch.org/cgi-bin/gitweb.cgi?p=openvswitch;a=blob_plain;f=WHY-OVS;h=ac9a3815a1a00ca3ad024bfb7d6652a040de8899;hb=HEAD
[7] http://openvswitch.org/
[8] http://openvswitch.org/support/
[9] http://git.kernel.org/?p=linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux-2.6.git;a=blob;f=Documentation/networking/openvswitch.txt;hb=HEAD
[10] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_PCRNUB7oNw
[11] http://linux.conf.au/
[12] http://git.kernel.org/linus/5bc1421e34ecfe0bd4b26dc3232b7d5e25179144
[13] http://git.kernel.org/linus/3ee32fee65ef6a4a8a4188e913be7dd90ba9e058
[14] http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.kernel.mm/71331
[15] http://git.kernel.org/linus/3aaabe2342c36bf48567b88fa78b819eee14bb5e
[16] http://git.kernel.org/linus/d1a4c0b37c296e600ffe08edb0db2dc1b8f550d7
[17] http://git.kernel.org/linus/e1aab161e0135aafcd439be20b4f35e4b0922d95
[18] http://git.kernel.org/linus/5a6dd343770d2ae2c25f7a4b1998c091e6252f42
[19] http://git.kernel.org/linus/180d8cd942ce336b2c869d324855c40c5db478ad
[20] https://lwn.net/Articles/470656/
[21] http://git.kernel.org/linus/75957ba36c05b979701e9ec64b37819adc12f830
[22] http://git.kernel.org/linus/114cf5802165ee93e3ab461c9c505cd94a08b800
[23] http://www.h-online.com/open/features/Kernel-Log-Multitouch-for-X-org-1397827.html?artikelseite=2
[24] https://lwn.net/Articles/454390/
[25] http://git.kernel.org/linus/2e756560a8a47ce754b852d0bc1ff7549433d0eb
[26] http://git.kernel.org/linus/4f3d09de38d234ce7ffba5ec5a7e6704f983d375
[27] http://git.kernel.org/linus/29942bc125374b5aa049a438fb628ea729538ca5
[28] http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.kernel.wireless.general/83760
[29] http://wireless.kernel.org/en/developers/DFS
[30] https://lwn.net/Articles/420623/
[31] http://git.kernel.org/linus/95fa0405c5991726e06c08ffcd8ff872f7fb4f2d
[32] http://git.kernel.org/linus/55086ad95d740577def0b4e6ecc2c0ae9b0d6dec
[33] http://git.kernel.org/linus/0e22d0437e6dea36c867b08ceb224c1cc98a45ab
[34] http://git.kernel.org/linus/9e791e4a04c08868f02cd579a428a7268492e1b4
[35] http://git.kernel.org/linus/0741bcb5584f9e2390ae6261573c4de8314999f2
[36] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_queue_management
[37] http://git.kernel.org/linus/8af2a218de38f51ea4b4fa48cac1273319ae260c
[38] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Random_early_detection
[39] http://icir.org/floyd/papers/adaptiveRed.pdf
[40] http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.kernel/1235959
[41] http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.network/215241/
[42] http://git.kernel.org/linus/5d531aaa64a06622874f06e5068b8eefca048feb
[43] http://git.kernel.org/linus/507dd7961eed950ef958a9a9536de987c52e81cd
[44] http://git.kernel.org/linus/52b7c59bc34c1eb73c46e023c9c01231e1cb637a
[45] http://git.kernel.org/linus/3c4d05c8056724aff3abc20650807dd828fded54
[46] http://git.kernel.org/linus/6d62a66e4211546f9e5c5d1ad586749a51cf30db
[47] http://git.kernel.org/?p=linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux-2.6.git;a=summary
[48] http://git.kernel.org/linus/ecedb6ae908e3a8a19942da921a3ffb1c5a0d6ab
[49] http://git.kernel.org/linus/6626873980475f303367f7b709f4703b571cf854
[50] http://git.kernel.org/linus/7afc5dbde09104b023ce04465ba71aaba0fc4346
[51] http://git.kernel.org/linus/e98319098885859e34c23cc8a130b6b8668a6abe
[52] http://git.kernel.org/linus/62ac0dc9ec0b90b83103ebb659e0696c344e4be4
[53] http://git.kernel.org/linus/614c76df1d1224dc2eee8678fab6e0b95b49b7da
[54] http://git.kernel.org/linus/2df1a70aaf70e8dff11b89b938a5f317556ee640
[55] http://git.kernel.org/linus/5d70b88cd41ef0f2ac0caaab4fd492dd686feee6
[56] http://git.kernel.org/linus/3f0cfa3bc11e7f00c9994e0f469cbc0e7da7b00c
[57] http://git.kernel.org/linus/3a4adef5c0adbbd0d898578e13ba1adbbdecbbd5
[58] http://git.kernel.org/linus/b8bfca9439d4ed03446bc9a3fdaef81b364d32dd
[59] http://git.kernel.org/linus/05183189ee5df8799b22c56d93f0f69b8490e33f
[60] http://git.kernel.org/linus/8d4548f2b7407f7212f71831bb7b457ceb752709
[61] http://git.kernel.org/linus/749ab2cd127046df79084b6b9165b23491b1db5f
[62] http://git.kernel.org/linus/bdbc063129e811264cd6c311d8c2d9b95de01231
[63] http://git.kernel.org/linus/51b7b1c34e195886e38ee93ff2a8a203745f897f
[64] http://git.kernel.org/linus/a9a8de214c91eecf596b3e79c7986b74ef17f4ec
[65] http://git.kernel.org/linus/f75ba50bdc2bcfab591bdf903312557033d0ac68
[66] http://git.kernel.org/linus/f9baff509f8a05a79626defdbdf4f4aa4efd373b
[67] http://git.kernel.org/linus/ab9c17a009ee8eb8c667f22dc0be0709effceab9
[68] http://git.kernel.org/linus/ffe455ad04681f3fc48eef595fe526a795f809a3
[69] http://git.kernel.org/linus/0ec2c0f86d31ab36547307f133b0016006bdc6b5
[70] http://git.kernel.org/linus/85c10f28286148ee5cdba1d22c81936ff160596e
[71] http://git.kernel.org/linus/26cf820d49ee23472191824000b3234c4bffb1a5
[72] http://git.kernel.org/linus/e19df76a1113dc57cda696cd78d06f2834f6d6bb
[73] http://git.kernel.org/linus/4d447c9a6ebc0142d320f075c5bac6d202a79fd4
[74] http://git.kernel.org/linus/d426b2e3d91f8ec3203f8852e7ad0153b5dfdf71
[75] http://git.kernel.org/linus/fb97a8466522f8f35ab886f7af8eefefa0a4905e
[76] http://git.kernel.org/linus/e8f081aacdbf4740da46d0f4b602620dc2ec1a76
[77] http://git.kernel.org/linus/60d6fe99e4a507f77b63c090eb8aacb67e21687a
[78] http://git.kernel.org/linus/c7e963f6888816f04d1f5da0e07bec4e0092f227
[79] http://git.kernel.org/linus/efa230f2c68abab817f13473077f8d0cc74f43f3
[80] http://git.kernel.org/linus/a8e510f682fe6d7671c11887e07c55f86caaf3c1
[81] http://git.kernel.org/linus/c3940999b29ca7d6ad9b37b827a058c90fd51992
[82] http://git.kernel.org/linus/da057fb7d272c7e7609465a54bcac8ec8072ead5
[83] http://git.kernel.org/linus/ec2a5466b3ce680c92e8e05617b020fd825854b9
[84] http://git.kernel.org/linus/bfab27a146ed4d722c6d399f844f955f29cd2b81
[85] http://git.kernel.org/linus/5b9932685fa40088e989be0d56f7e41e362e9450
[86] http://git.kernel.org/linus/e348c5e7de4a759a94eed4d0303ba81a4939f8b9
[87] http://git.kernel.org/linus/4f272096054b6154e31e850f192eef5782f156c6
[88] http://git.kernel.org/linus/298376d3e8f00147548c426959ce79efc47b669a
[89] http://git.kernel.org/linus/efab79c5c3bf830a41b2f737146a9b70c0e13f44
[90] http://git.kernel.org/linus/fc3e0f8aec05dd812cba2c1e31c3d1f5fc85e55c
[91] http://git.kernel.org/linus/84e1e7373b961713bde371b9391d91fe7150d7f2
[92] http://git.kernel.org/linus/ce169aca0d823d38465127023e3d571816e6666c
[93] http://git.kernel.org/linus/7ff7c82ee4339af277cface9071f81c5c10a9283
[94] http://git.kernel.org/linus/3226f68af4fe74932677db271b4ac4f26556954d
[95] http://git.kernel.org/linus/dd6c0c63b43afc3a99b6c69d0b509f0395bb4fe2
[96] http://git.kernel.org/linus/635412127e089cc401fdd793f4d3731450419231
[97] http://git.kernel.org/linus/8277de15efb00a4796fb05824a28c20c3894256c
[98] http://git.kernel.org/linus/6cb3c714e75c6e70fa1c379b7f3af2f143f31c70
[99] http://git.kernel.org/linus/d93e2c2f2109a3b804fa799079a6dd4d315af857
[100] http://git.kernel.org/linus/b64de35654cea2f5301d08f9195836f7ea8118c0
[101] http://git.kernel.org/linus/a24fc7c35324618ce5fe9c54baa4bc9a3881cc86
[102] http://git.kernel.org/linus/fb94333a62b7b11041dfb6daad94353ec5fbb7fd
[103] http://git.kernel.org/linus/774439ad88ecec928ab4a438946ee4985116c481
[104] http://git.kernel.org/linus/3ca9d1fc9aa64077645a26c396de9399b49ea226
[105] http://git.kernel.org/linus/d5720e59410578d00c1767d66b2b8dfeda91a08b
[106] http://git.kernel.org/linus/7dc181c273861c4d96991f59a4fdcda3a3eaccae
[107] http://git.kernel.org/linus/fd6562344dea2b8b2a5d644cf971f4e56004500a
[108] http://git.kernel.org/linus/4f17c48e3902c823e4af68d2de9546f5b707533d
[109] http://git.kernel.org/linus/9a66af3317be2b2ceea38f403d2f682f255de82a
[110] http://git.kernel.org/linus/3ebfcdc43ae261e58e5b9b381ae1f278cda068e3
[111] http://git.kernel.org/linus/8a30930563521c9dba73c93b5631be1d0993f78f
[112] http://git.kernel.org/linus/5bd5e9a6ae5137a61d0b5c277eac61892d89fc4f
[113] http://git.kernel.org/linus/de1c732b1891a25f3f2f52ef7211a3d567bbd588
[114] http://git.kernel.org/linus/38646ebae710da024bdf6e9dcac733bfdb6dd3e1
[115] http://git.kernel.org/linus/1a98489731b0a02ed5c0f842651462050a3af001
[116] http://git.kernel.org/linus/c20186b90fd73cf9bb20da55796fee00e63de9a4
[117] http://git.kernel.org/linus/ce2d7d7e8fd88191f5d1c92a8b33aeb0cb12ea34
[118] http://git.kernel.org/linus/f72ae31e6f0442936c23287d34500fb93b7ac7b8
[119] http://git.kernel.org/linus/3b77d5ec0c86b8a9594217ff9024b00e4d1c5795
[120] http://git.kernel.org/linus/090891fb2c68eecf95c18c8ba117fc850d21abf8
[121] http://git.kernel.org/linus/7428994d7991c662d77fc5212a9e42de34c05335
[122] http://git.kernel.org/linus/61fe55f61fb48b691251e0f75505674db77f5d29
[123] http://git.kernel.org/linus/6195d135b78e4067c24b5340552c89e7acf88d22
[124] http://git.kernel.org/linus/0cb38d65efa0304e9a948fd7aef9c7d38ad8cbb9
[125] http://git.kernel.org/linus/75a56eccb01fcc3c1ae8000130f3c9b3c8ec68d9
[126] http://git.kernel.org/linus/13c40c54682ffe62977f670681268a26d500d6fa
[127] http://git.kernel.org/linus/b53be7920bd9bb1bb99fecc2ff537bc79d24082f
[128] http://git.kernel.org/linus/665c93a93e35cafcd8c84073824f1ef1b19f0a7d
[129] http://git.kernel.org/linus/a729cff8ad5120d0d5172ec28a3843d1cb458f79
[130] http://git.kernel.org/linus/ef96a84202ccfb48a4569256ffba45e32308f7ee
[131] http://git.kernel.org/linus/8675b505a4df40394096948453a17cc5445f6538
[132] http://git.kernel.org/linus/e3bea1c8751d297c197949db01aa1e7adbc1104d
[133] http://git.kernel.org/linus/00e8e69270cc8d5b9db98dcb73d26f21c2539010
[134] http://git.kernel.org/linus/7f6cf311a594c1e7ca8120367dd1d4c685aabff1
[135] http://git.kernel.org/linus/4745fc095da0d276b9c149e87b853b78d42d4f32
[136] http://git.kernel.org/linus/3ac44670ad0fca8b6c43b3e4d8494c67c419f494
[137] http://git.kernel.org/linus/dfd00c4c8f3dfa1fd7cec45f83d98b2a49743dcd
[138] http://git.kernel.org/linus/7fbaf3efb042871fce7c9cd706cf9f90d61b5e59
[139] http://git.kernel.org/linus/bc93eda7e903ff75cefcb6e247ed9b8e9f8e9783
[140] http://git.kernel.org/linus/5a87e7a706750c84b3b17943e55a9de77d40869d
[141] http://git.kernel.org/linus/6cddafab54e9a17b2efefe982547865955a5ff3a
[142] http://git.kernel.org/linus/1d9d9213d526f2f4ef9a3aa198a29a0b1a670fa1
[143] http://git.kernel.org/linus/0052d812599fb0327792b6c3f4257b26dcc13239
[144] http://git.kernel.org/linus/7e7c8926b2f4e3453b8aeb39cd814d2af3fec24f
[145] http://git.kernel.org/linus/c7e7c227b63836933ef736fa2d7cc526174b1563
[146] http://git.kernel.org/linus/719269afbc69ab96339aad6c2d3b32f7d8311146
[147] http://git.kernel.org/linus/3bd5b958c2a2dd1a9b4c8d21e75fb47b062fc941
[148] http://git.kernel.org/linus/63ce40e4fd7d68373127a51dd1facef07c93cf4a
[149] http://git.kernel.org/linus/1143d45846f190465382dd667c7f893b9d1fd131
[150] http://git.kernel.org/linus/2b64d153a0cc9d2b60e47be013cde8490f16e0a5
[151] http://git.kernel.org/linus/5fe57d9e9edb9182d1fa941b94902444c3174ccd
[152] http://git.kernel.org/linus/604086b73b9b342414a53c0f34dd23aecb005ff8
[153] http://git.kernel.org/linus/36acbb1adadf1ba300f14ee904a7d3f23120e0d6
[154] http://git.kernel.org/linus/f1e91e1640d808d332498a6b09b2bcd01462eff9
[155] http://git.kernel.org/linus/a5fd6f300433ef7458c6d934f81f47ebd7c7e805
[156] http://git.kernel.org/linus/6327eb980d2ff0c96363b81cb0ce580165cb81b8
[157] http://git.kernel.org/linus/7784d78f184a80ca576f87b5a663b7b40e7a9b25
[158] http://git.kernel.org/linus/89352e7d3ab372ffad8efe2aa070e0b63df42b85
[159] http://git.kernel.org/linus/73d80deb7bdf0171f22e76dc2429c1f99eff90e2
[160] http://git.kernel.org/linus/1ba9ac7c35b30d6b958a30240e21ddaea8d21b35
[161] http://git.kernel.org/linus/43598813386f6205edf3c21f1fe97f731ccb4f15
[162] http://git.kernel.org/linus/292d1398983f3514a0eab13b7606df7f4730b498
[163] http://git.kernel.org/linus/7ad65bf68d705b445ef10b77ab50dab22be185ee
[164] http://git.kernel.org/linus/2a367c3a82557cd11a04949ef2160658987fa772
[165] http://git.kernel.org/linus/b440752d5dc9255195bb15152facef093c30fbac
[166] http://git.kernel.org/linus/edd2c26ffb7742bf0d3bd324694d220281844a01
[167] http://git.kernel.org/linus/e285e44d91fe5a89e0d9fe4f5dda4f9e8c8a3c7e
[168] http://git.kernel.org/linus/7e02e5433e004713a89f5f865a243133b55dcc88
[169] http://git.kernel.org/linus/de565664041d954b60f87e3d576a784cf25672d0
[170] http://git.kernel.org/linus/1839a6c6f1eb8c0e20dc87d57024a85707f1a2f8
[171] http://git.kernel.org/linus/34a430d7bd26b35ca3a7d3fc83663de8ea6e33f6
[172] http://git.kernel.org/linus/3b1588593097b7d71f44c4b7b435bf28924316e0
[173] http://git.kernel.org/linus/f80400a26a2e8bff541de12834a1134358bb6642
[174] http://git.kernel.org/linus/fa84309533025eb3f03dc1d2d2be1c3ca206882a
[175] http://git.kernel.org/linus/acb32ba3dee66d58704caeeb8c6ff95f60efdc66
[176] http://git.kernel.org/linus/1d5783030a14d1b6ee763f63c8136e581f48b365
[177] http://git.kernel.org/linus/76ad94fc5df865e34e09406614f29951a046394a
[178] http://git.kernel.org/linus/8b5c171bb3dc0686b2647a84e990199c5faa9ef8
[179] http://git.kernel.org/linus/28011cf19b75df9d3f35489a7599a97ec0b3f1a0
[180] http://git.kernel.org/linus/6e3e939f3b1bf8534b32ad09ff199d88800835a0
[181] http://git.kernel.org/linus/90b41a1cd44cc4e507b554ae5a36562a1ba9a4e8
[182] http://git.kernel.org/linus/7bc0f28c7a0cd19f40e5a6e4d0a117db9a4e4cd5
[183] http://git.kernel.org/linus/9413902796f56f6209e19dd54e840ed46950612c
[184] http://git.kernel.org/linus/8f97339d3feb662037b86a925e692017c0b32323
[185] http://git.kernel.org/linus/e26f9a480fb6c1b614660e824d69a74e2ce990f3
[186] http://git.kernel.org/linus/cbc9f2f4fcd70d5a627558ca9a881fa9391abf69
[187] http://git.kernel.org/linus/54b07dca68557b0952585b5f4834cd0dd86eba35
[188] http://git.kernel.org/linus/af0d29cd2a732f70882e6122b9f9df8b0d84515e
[189] http://git.kernel.org/linus/ceb98d03eac5704820f2ac1f370c9ff385e3a9f5
[190] http://git.kernel.org/linus/d446a8202c81d95f91b1682fc67e7fadd9a31389
[191] http://git.kernel.org/linus/b2b5ce9d1ccf1c45f8ac68e5d901112ab76ba199
[192] http://git.kernel.org/linus/08e29af3a9096ffdff477e537daea67faefd3952
[193] http://git.kernel.org/linus/bc5787c6125cc2c868eaace46c46ce6e83dcfcb6
[194] http://git.kernel.org/linus/fa0f5aa74316c636427ac92dad0bc5714c34ca17
[195] http://git.kernel.org/linus/ddecf0f4db44ef94847a62d6ecf74456b4dcc66f
[196] http://git.kernel.org/linus/1ed28f610653e9b18433c6d87e9d333b7e3e886e
[197] http://git.kernel.org/linus/d646960f7986fefb460a2b062d5ccc8ccfeacc3a
[198] http://git.kernel.org/linus/e8c0dacd9836dc2dcb28d236c9cc3cfaa9965a20
[199] http://git.kernel.org/linus/637d85a7cdfe4240a56da7d70cf95cca65ea21d3
[200] http://git.kernel.org/linus/d8a6e65f8b6b6b0142ebab578472906d89d63657
[201] http://git.kernel.org/linus/2060a5774452e35b4a1dc4371abbb5ffd691355f
[202] http://git.kernel.org/linus/6d4cdf47d2cc9d40227c67c79a4942e36ed1b0ba
[203] http://git.kernel.org/linus/c0190925dacd976a67044f4382d4effbed568dce
[204] http://www.h-online.com/search/?sort=d;rm=search;mediatype=3;q=kernel-log
[205] http://www.h-online.com/open/
[206] http://www.h-online.com/open/features/The-H-s-Linux-Kernel-History-1221120.html
[207] http://identi.ca/kernellog2
[208] http://twitter.com/#!/kernellog2
[209] http://identi.ca/kernellogauthor
[210] http://twitter.com/#!/kernellogauthor


Tags deste artigo: kernel release candidate software livre linux gnu h-online

0sem comentários ainda

Enviar um comentário

Os campos são obrigatórios.

Se você é um usuário registrado, pode se identificar e ser reconhecido automaticamente.